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Biology G9: CSE Citation Format (HS Science & Math)

Notice & Tools

Major Changes from 2017:

Because a URL or DOI in a reference indicates an online source, do not include “Internet” or Available from:

DO include accessed date after date of material.

Note periods and brackets:

Ex: 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

Cornell Note-taking System

CSE Guide & Formatting

Council of Science Editors CSE Citation-Sequence Documentation

Adapted from The Writing Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison

In the CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. The sources are numbered in the reference list by the order they appear in the paper, sequentially (citation-sequence).

In-text references

Format in-text references

In CSE style, as adapted for Concordian International School, the numbers appear [bracketed] and before punctuation marks like commas or periods.

Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians [1].

Number in-text references

In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is [1], the second [2] and so on. When possible, put numbers immediately after the relevant word or phrase rather than at the end of a sentence.

Cite multiple sources in one sentence

If the numbers are not in a continuous sequence, use commas (with no spaces) between numbers. If you have more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.

For the non-dimorphic polistines such as Polistes, Ropalidia and others, the long-standing view is that differences in the quantity of nourishment received during the larval stage act as a "nutritional switch" to bias development toward one caste or the other [7,8,11-14].

 Cite one source in multiple sentences

Once you have assigned a source a number, use that same number every time you cite it.

Once associated with an insect, some isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum can infect and persist in D. melanogaster and activate an immune response [8,9]. The protein Evf (Erwinia virulence factor), present only in insect-associated strains, promotes the persistence of bacteria in the insect midgut. Evf synthesis is regulated by SlyA (Hor), which also regulates plant virulence genes [1,9].

Cite sources in tables and figures

When referring to tables and figures from outside sources if they are from sources you have used for other information, only cite it once and use the same number for the figure. Tables and Figures that you generate with your research should be labeled Table 1 or Figure 2, for example, below the table, with your description as close to the text where you refer to the table, Table 1.

Quote or excerpt a source

Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors. When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from.

Cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)

Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. Secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source. If you cannot, in your text you will write something like "as discussed by Reuhl [4], Williams....."  Here you are citing the work you read by Reuhl who is reviewing results from Williams, which you could not read.

Note on interviews!

In CSE style interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication (such as emails, texts, letters) are not included in the Cited References list. Cite these in the text of your paper in parenthesis: Ex:  "...text (K Fester, interview with author, 21 Apr 2016) continue text."

Format your Cited References

The goal of your reference list (Cited References) is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.        

 The references are listed by the bracketed number order they were used.

  • ​​Cited References are listed by the order they were used in the document.
  • Authors' first names are capitals of first and middle name, after their surnames. No periods. Comma between authors.
  • Because a URL or DOI in a reference indicates an online source, do not include “Internet” or Available from:

Instead include accessed date after date of the material. Note periods and brackets:

Ex: 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

  • No italics, no quotation marks. However, species names are italicized.

Format your Cited References

The goal of your reference list (Cited References) is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.        

 The references are listed by the bracketed number order they were used.

  • ​​Cited References are listed by the order they were used in the document.
  • Authors' first names are capitals of first and middle name, after their surnames. No periods. Comma between authors.
  • Because a URL or DOI in a reference indicates an online source, do not include “Internet” or Available from:

Instead include accessed date after date of the material. Note periods and brackets:

Ex: 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

  • No italics, no quotation marks. However, species names are italicized.

​​Examples of Cited References from 2018 Scientific Style and Format Quick Guide

Journals (print)

List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Periods also follow article and journal title and volume or issue information. Separate the date from volume and issue by a semicolon. The location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon.

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.

Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations maintained by the ISSN International Centre. See Appendix 29.1 in Scientific Style and Format for more information.

For articles with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49–58.

For articles with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”

Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 2002;22(2A):727–732.

Volume with no issue or other subdivision

Laskowski DA. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;174:49–170.

Volume with issue and supplement

Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;8(4 Suppl):31S–37S

Volume with supplement but no issue

Heemskerk J, Tobin AJ, Ravina B. From chemical to drug: neurodegeneration drug screening and the ethics of clinical trials. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5 Suppl:1027–1029.

Multiple issue numbers

Ramstrom O, Bunyapaiboonsri T, Lohmann S, Lehn JM. Chemical biology of dynamic combinatorial libraries. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1572(2–3):178–186.

Issue with no volume

Sabatier R. Reorienting health and social services. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(4):1–3.

Books (print)

Separate information about author(s), title, edition, and publication by periods. The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional.

Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. See Chapter 29 for more information.

For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

Ferrozzi F, Garlaschi G, Bova D. CT of metastases. New York (NY): Springer; 2000.

For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995.

Organization as author

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London (England): BMJ Books; 2001.

Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s)

Klarsfeld A, Revah F. The biology of death: origins of mortality. Brady L, translator. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press; 2003.

Luzikov VN. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York (NY): Consultants Bureau; 1985.

Chapter or other part of a book, same author(s)

Gawande A. The checklist manifesto: how to get things right. New York (NY): Metropolitan Books; 2010. Chapter 3, The end of the master builder; p. 48–71.

Chapter or other part of a book, different authors

Rapley R. Recombinant DNA and genetic analysis. In: Wilson K, Walker J, editors. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology. 7th ed. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 195–262.

Multivolume work as a whole

Alkire LG, editor. Periodical title abbreviations. 16th ed. Detroit (MI): Thompson Gale; 2006. 2 vol. Vol. 1, By abbreviation; vol. 2, By title.

Dissertations and Theses (print)

Lutz M. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University; 1989.

Patents

Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, inventors; Ophthalmic Ventures, assignee. Surgical stapling system. United States patent US 4,969,591. 1990 Nov 13.

Newspapers (print)

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

DVDs

Indicate a copyright date with a lowercase “c”.

Johnson D, editor. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; c2002. 1 DVD.

Websites and Other Online Formats (including databases)

References to websites and other online formats follow the same general principles as for printed references, with the addition of a date of update/revision (if available) along with an access date and a URL.

Website

Format:

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

If no date of publication can be determined, use a copyright date (if available), preceded by “c”. Include the URL in the notes.

APSnet: plant pathology. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994–2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.

Online journal article

Format:

Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. Notes.

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. 2005 [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

e-Book

Format:

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example:

Brogden KA, Guthmille JM, editors. Polymicrobial diseases. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002 [accessed February 28, 2014]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2475/.

Blog

Format:

Author’s name. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. Date of publication. [accessed date]. URL.

Example:

Fogarty M. Formatting titles on Twitter and Facebook [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19]. http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/formatting-titles-on-twitter-and-facebook.aspx.

Forthcoming or Unpublished Material

Not all forthcoming or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in reference lists. Check with your publisher if in doubt.

Forthcoming journal article or book

Journal article:

Farley T, Galves A, Dickinson LM, Perez MJ. Stress, coping, and health: a comparison of Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. J Immigr Health. Forthcoming 2005 Jul.

Book:

Goldstein DS. Adrenaline and the inner world: an introduction to scientific integrative medicine. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press. Forthcoming 2006.

Paper or poster presented at meeting

Unpublished presentations are cited as follows:

Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. Anatomical shape representation in spine x-ray images. Paper presented at: VIIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; 2003 Sep 8–10; Benalmadena, Spain.

Charles L, Gordner R. Analysis of MedlinePlus en Español customer service requests. Poster session presented at: Futuro magnifico! Celebrating our diversity. MLA ’05: Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14–19; San Antonio, TX.

References to published presentations are cited much like contributions to books, with the addition of information about the date and place of the conference. See Chapter 29 for more information.

Personal communication

References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references.

Permission is usually required and should be acknowledged in an “Acknowledgment” or “Notes” section at the end of the document.

. . . and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see “Notes”) while a few were not.

Example of Chart (labeled Figure) from a source Notice [in-text citation] since this is a chart from research found

Example of using a Formula / Equation

Example of Table created by author Ex: When referred to in text: ...see table 1...

Example of Figure / Graph created by author Ex: When referred to in text:   ...as seen in figure 8, ...

Example of Digital Image created by author Ex: When referred to in text: (see figure 7)

Example of Acknowledgement   This can go in the introduction or at the end of the Extended Essay

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