Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

"Concordian International School": Secondary Library: CSE Citation Format

Access to Library Services and Resources

Tips On Using Citation Tool - Zbib - and CSE

Add the CSE style (numeric) by following procedures:

Under manual entry/ edit, add the descriptive words after the title: 

1. Scroll down to the bottom

2. click on "Link to this version"

3. Save the URL created to somewhere safe! You can use this URL to retrieve your references anytime you want.

CSE Guide & Formatting

Council of Science Editors CSE Citation-Sequence Documentation

  • In the CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. The sources are numbered in the reference list by the order they appear in the paper, sequentially (citation-sequence).

In-text references

  • Format in-text references

In CSE style, as adapted for Concordian International School, the numbers appear [bracketed] and before punctuation marks like commas or periods.

Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians [1].

  • Number in-text references

In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is [1], the second [2] and so on. When possible, put numbers immediately after the relevant word or phrase rather than at the end of a sentence.

  • Cite multiple sources in one sentence

If the numbers are not in a continuous sequence, use commas (with no spaces) between numbers. If you have more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.

For the non-dimorphic polistines such as Polistes, Ropalidia and others, the long-standing view is that differences in the quantity of nourishment received during the larval stage act as a "nutritional switch" to bias development toward one caste or the other [7,8,11-14].

  •  Cite one source in multiple sentences

Once you have assigned a source a number, use that same number every time you cite it.

Once associated with an insect, some isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum can infect and persist in D. melanogaster and activate an immune response [8,9]. The protein Evf (Erwinia virulence factor), present only in insect-associated strains, promotes the persistence of bacteria in the insect midgut. Evf synthesis is regulated by SlyA (Hor), which also regulates plant virulence genes [1,9].

  • Cite sources in tables and figures

When referring to tables and figures from outside sources if they are from sources you have used for other information, only cite it once and use the same number for the figure. Tables and Figures that you generate with your research should be labeled Table 1 or Figure 2, for example, below the table, with your description as close to the text where you refer to the table, Table 1.

  • Quote or excerpt a source

Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors. When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from.

  • Cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)

Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. Secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source. If you cannot, in your text you will write something like "as discussed by Reuhl [4], Williams....."  Here you are citing the work you read by Reuhl who is reviewing results from Williams, which you could not read.

Note on interviews!

In CSE style interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication (such as emails, texts, letters) are not included in the Cited References list. Cite these in the text of your paper in parenthesis: Ex:  "...text (K Fester, interview with author, 21 Apr 2016) continue text."

Format your Cited References

The goal of your reference list (Cited References) is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.        

 The references are listed by the bracketed number order they were used.

  • Cited References are listed by the order they were used in the document
  • Authors' first names are capitals of first and middle name, after their surnames. No periods. Comma between authors.
  • Because a URL or DOI in a reference indicates an online source, do not include “Internet” or Available from: Instead include accessed date after date of the material. Note periods and brackets:

Ex: 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

  • No italics, no quotation marks. However, species names are italicized.

Adapted from The Writing Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Format your Cited References

The goal of your reference list (Cited References) is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.        

 The references are listed by the bracketed number order they were used.

  • ​​Cited References are listed by the order they were used in the document.
  • Authors' first names are capitals of first and middle name, after their surnames. No periods. Comma between authors.
  • Because a URL or DOI in a reference indicates an online source, do not include “Internet” or Available from: Instead include accessed date after date of the material. Note periods and brackets:

Ex: 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

  • No italics, no quotation marks. However, species names are italicized.

​​Examples of Cited References from 2018 Scientific Style and Format Quick Guide

  • Journals
  • Books
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Patents
  • Newspapers
  • DVDs
  • Websits, Online Journal, eBook, blog
  • Unpublished Materials (e.g. Personal Interviews)

Personal communication

References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references.

Permission is usually required and should be acknowledged in an “Acknowledgment” or “Notes” section at the end of the document.

. . . and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see “Notes”) while a few were not.

Example of Chart (labeled Figure) from a source Notice [in-text citation] since this is a chart from research found

Example of using a Formula / Equation

Example of Table created by author Ex: When referred to in text: ...see table 1...

Example of Figure / Graph created by author Ex: When referred to in text:   ...as seen in figure 8, ...

Example of Digital Image created by author Ex: When referred to in text: (see figure 7)

Example of Acknowledgement   This can go in the introduction or at the end of the Extended Essay

CSE: 3 Common Examples: Website, Video, Online Journal Article